The method of managing the strawberry to survive winter is as follows:
How to cover insulation
Strawberries have gradually entered a dormant period since winter. Strawberry roots are shallow. In winter, they can only withstand the low temperature of -8 Â°C and the temperature of -10 Â°C for a short time. When the temperature drops again, freezing damage will occur. In severe cases, the plants will die, resulting in a decrease in economic benefits. The wintering and cold-proof measures for the cultivation of strawberries in the north are mainly to cover the insulation. Overwintering covers the cold and protects the grass, which is conducive to the growth of strawberries. However, if the effect of covering the cold is not good, the performance is late, the growth is weak, and the yield is significantly reduced.
Coverage time Every winter, when the strawberry is subjected to several frost and low temperature exercises, the temperature is lowered to -7 Â°C, and the soil is most suitable for covering the soil. Generally in the period of November.
Coverage method 1. Coverage time. Fill the antifreeze water before covering the cold-proof material, and be sure to fill it with water. The irrigation time will be carried out in the soil during the freezing period, and the ground cover will be carried out one week after the irrigation. 2. Cover the material. A variety of crop straws, leaves, soft grass, decomposed horse manure, fine broken ring fat soil can be used. If the soil is covered with cold, it is best to cover the grass with a small amount and then cover the soil to avoid damage to the strawberry seedlings during spring soil withdrawal. The thickness of the cover is determined by the local climatic conditions and the thermal insulation properties of the covering material, and the thickness is generally 3 to 5 cm. 3. Coverage method. Covering is best done twice. After pouring the frozen water, dry it slightly, cover a part of the material first. After a few days, the temperature will not rise again and then cover it all. 4. Set wind barriers to prevent cold. In the densely planted strawberry garden with snow accumulation, it is possible to set up a wind barrier to prevent cold and not cover the ground. Wind barriers are set every 10 to 15 meters, and materials such as sorghum stalks, corn stalks, and stalks can be used. The barrier is 2 to 2.5 meters high. Conditional cold-proof cloth, color steel tile and other materials can be used to set up wind barriers around the garden, and the effect is also very good. 5. Remove the cover period. It is usually carried out twice in the spring of the next year. The first time the average temperature was above 0 Â°C, the thawed cover was removed. In the case of excessive rain and snow in winter, it is necessary to remove it in time to promote the thawing of the lower layer, which is conducive to sunlight and increase the ground temperature. The second time when the strawberry is about to sprout, don't remove the cold material too late to avoid damage to the new stem. 6. Cover with mulch. After the strawberry is poured into the frozen water with the mulch, the surface is covered with a slight dryness and the surface is covered with the ridge. When the film is covered, the film should be stretched and flattened so that the film is tightly attached to the surface of the film. The surrounding of the film is pressed with soil pressure, and a small mound is covered in the middle to prevent the wind from blowing through the film, and then the cover is covered. Or in areas with snow, it is better to cover the strawberry with 10 cm thick wheat straw, thatch, straw and other materials to cover the plastic film. It is better than covering the mulch and then covering the cover.
How to control the greenhouse in winter
Strawberry is a nutritious and highly effective product. In recent years, the area planted with strawberries has expanded year by year, which has become an effective way for farmers to adjust their planting structure and increase their income. The technical points of winter management of strawberry steel frame greenhouse are introduced as follows.
The temperature and humidity management in the shed should reduce the humidity in the shed as much as possible during the whole growth period, especially during the winter flowering period, the relative humidity should be reduced to 50% to 60%. 7 to 10 days after the shed, the black mulch on the enamel cover and cover the sulcus completely or partially, can effectively reduce the humidity inside the shed, and also have the effect of heat preservation and weeding.
Fertilizer management should be applied once a day for about 20 days, and once a month after the year. Fertilization is often combined with irrigation. Irrigation is generally carried out by drip irrigation under the membrane to reduce the humidity in the shed. The mulch can be perforated every 20 to 25 cm along the middle part, then the mulch is filled with water, and the water is on the mulch. In the same direction, the side of the stream penetrates into the raft.
Diseases, pests and diseases are mainly caused by powdery mildew and gray mold. Powdery mildew is sprayed with 20% triazolone wettable powder 1000 times. The selection of gray mold is controlled after the shed, and the smoked agent such as a smoked spirit or smoked spirit is mainly smoked. The aphids were sprayed with 5% beta-cypermethrin 1500 times solution.
How to cultivate high yield
Strawberry cultivation in greenhouse is relatively easy and has high economic benefits, which is developing rapidly throughout the country. Based on years of experience, the high-yield and practical cultivation techniques are now introduced as follows.
The seedlings of the seedlings were planted, and the stems of the open field cultivated in the previous year were planted with 700 to 800 plants per acre. In the root treatment, a mother plant can breed 70 to 80 robust seedlings. The standard for strong seedlings is that the roots are more than 1 cm thick, the roots are 3-5 cm long, and there are 3-5 standard leaves, and the plants are robust.
25 days before planting and planting, 5,000 kg of high-quality decomposed organic fertilizer per acre, 100-150 kg of biological potassium fertilizer, 30 cm deep, ridge height 10-15 cm, ridge width 40-50 cm, ridge spacing 15-20 cm, ridged north and south, sunny, bactericidal and insecticidal, in preparation for colonization.
The shed is generally east-west, with a shed length of 50-60 meters, a width of 7-8 meters, and a height of 2.5-3 meters. The time of the shed is determined according to the time when the fruit is listed. Usually, Baojiao blooms one month after germination, and the fruit begins to mature more than one month after flowering, and the harvest period is about one month. According to the required cooling capacity, the shed can be warmed up from mid-October to mid-November.
The temperature management sprouts to the initial flowering stage, the suitable temperature during the day is 20-30 Â°C; the harvest period is above 8 Â°C; during the daytime, the temperature in the shed is too high to be ventilated in time. If the outside temperature is too low, the top wind and the stroke should be placed, and the bottom wind should not be placed.
Flowering management flowering period is suitable for 20-25 Â°C during the day, 5-6 Â°C during the night, the minimum temperature can not be lower than 3 Â°C; the optimum humidity in the shed is 50-60%. If it is too large, it should be ventilated and dehydrated at the right time; Water, no water spray; no fertilization during flowering, no spraying, to prevent flower damage; flower pollination.
In addition, it is necessary to properly fertilize and water the plants during the cultivation process to prevent pests and diseases to ensure the healthy growth of strawberries.
Pay attention to the results
The strawberry flowering result requires 80% of the field water holding capacity, 12-15 hours of daily light, and 18-26 Â°C of temperature. The following points should be noted in management:
Topdressing 10-15 kg of urea or compound fertilizer per 667 square meters of land to accelerate plant growth, facilitate the development of new leaves, and promote flowering results. Top dressing should be combined with watering to ensure that the soil is moist. Foliar sprayed fruit sylvestre 1 or 0.3-0.5% Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate 2-3 times.
Picking stems and removing strawberry stems can increase yield by 40%-50%. For the purpose of reproduction, an appropriate amount of stolons can be left behind. Excess stems consume a lot of nutrients and affect the subsequent flower bud differentiation. It should be removed when the stolon is just growing out, 3-4 times a year.
The flower that blooms on the strawberry inflorescence often does not form fruit, has no economic value and consumes nutrients. To eliminate the flower buds when they are separated from each other, it is preferable to remove 1/5-1/4 of the inflorescence, and the weak inflorescence does not have to be retained.
In addition to leafy strawberries, new leaves continue to occur throughout the year, and old leaves are successively yellow. In the flowering period, the old leaves and diseased leaves should be removed in time and wiped off together with the weak side buds. In this way, nutrient consumption can be effectively reduced, and ventilation and light transmission between plants can be enhanced.
The strawberry plant is short and the fruit is easily sagged to the ground and is contaminated by soil and pests, which also causes uneven coloration of the fruit. The countermeasures are: use chopped straw or wheat straw to pave the way around the plant. This is more important for parks and rainy areas that are not covered by plastic film.
Control white matter and leaf spot and gray mold in flowering stage, spray new high fat film or 50% mycelium 500 times solution, 70% methyl thiophanate 1000 times solution, 20% rust spirit emulsion 1500 times solution, 2% Water agent 200 times liquid and so on.
The pest control can use 50% Converse wettable powder 2000-000 times solution or 2% Wangxing EC 3000 times solution for aphids. If red spider is found, spray 5% Solang EC 2000 times, or 20% Fang Liumycinmycin EC 1000 times. Note that pesticides are banned within 20 days of harvesting.
Mature strawberries are soft and juicy and must be harvested in time to avoid rot. The harvest can be arranged in stages, and after every 1-2 days in the morning, the dew is dried and picked up once before noon, and the mature fruit is finished. For fresh food and canned food, it is advisable to have eight ripeties. The flesh is required to be hard, the color is delicious, and the shape is complete.
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